Barry Callebaut: the key findings of cocoa farming in Côte d'Ivoire
Poverty reduction is driven by three key factors - yield, size of farm and price
A picture of farming in Côte d’Ivoire
In Côte d’Ivoire, cocoa is predominantly grown by independent smallholder farmers. According to Agri-Logic data, the average farmer age is 48 years, with an average household size of 10.6 people, or 7.5 people when excluding dependents who may or may not be relatives, but are nonetheless dependent on the farm. In Côte d’Ivoire, farms are around 5.12 hectares in size, with an average of 3.61 hectares primarily dedicated to cocoa.
Key findings: Poverty reduction is driven by three factors
Using Agri-Logic’s Farmer Field Book Methodology, data and insights were collected from farmers on a range of topics, including farm investment, household profile, and environmental impacts. The data analysis shows that poverty reduction is driven by three key factors - yield, size of farm and price.
1. Cocoa yield is affected by farm location and investment
Annual rainfall of between 1,500mm and 2,000mm, well distributed throughout the year, is required to grow cocoa in optimal conditions in Côte d’Ivoire1. With regards to yield, the data analysis shows two findings:
The first is farm location. Farmers reporting highest cocoa yield in farms are located in regions which received significantly more rainfall (1,699 - 2,500mm), relative to the cocoa region’s average. In contrast, farms that are located in the center north and northeast of Côte d’Ivoire received below average rainfall, reported lower yields in these areas.
The second finding is that the level of farm investment in the form of additional labor and input, such as soil management techniques, also impacts cocoa yield. The data shows the difference between the bottom and the top quintile of investment levels was significant, with the top 20 percent of farmers collecting nearly double the yield (around 620 kg/ha on average) relative to the bottom quintile, where average yields were a little over 350 kg/ha.
2. Investment is also a critical factor with regards to farm size
The analysis shows that larger farm size does not automatically equate to increases in cocoa yield, in comparison to smaller farms. This is particularly representative when farm management is undertaken only by the household, without the investment of additional labor. In contrast, a large farm with an adequate level of investment, can drive a higher level of income by more cocoa being grown, resulting in higher yields and subsequently higher reported income.
Farm investment is key. Roughly, a farmer on average will invest somewhere between $80 and $120 per hectare and that's simply not enough. With regards to farm size, bigger farm size matters, but a large farm only managed by the household without additional investment will not lead to higher yields and income. Nicolas Mounard, VP Sustainability and Farming, Barry Callebaut
3. Price mechanisms can support an increase in farmer income
With regards to higher price, the findings show that price mechanisms can support an increase in farmer income, which should be coupled with the other factors such as yield and farm size and farm location. Barry Callebaut acknowledges that higher farmgate prices lead to poverty reduction and that the appropriate mechanisms to achieve this should be analyzed in a broader context of price construction, for example the importance of farm gate price as well as export price, to achieve the biggest impact on farmers’ incomes.
Price mechanisms can support an increase in farmer income, however, price should also include other factors such as cocoa yield, farm size and farm location.
Systemic change is only possible through the participation of all supply chain actors
A fully sustainable cocoa and chocolate sector can only be achieved when all supply chain actors are committed to supporting the development of an enabling environment. By sharing this research, we hope that our change in approach from less training and more investment into doing, will be a valuable contribution to the wider cocoa sector discussion on adaptations to the existing cocoa farming model in Côte d'Ivoire, and more broadly, West Africa.
Whilst our key findings indicate what activities and approaches should be undertaken to support farmers out of poverty, this must go hand in hand with the development of supporting policies to drive poverty reduction. This includes the development of integrated agricultural policies and land titles, that align national production targets with global demand. In addition, given the reported rate of deforestation in Côte d'Ivoire, it is critical that there is broader discussion on reforestation strategies and production of the same amount of cocoa on less land.
1 The International Cocoa Organization (ICCO): www.https://www.icco.org (Accessed April 4, 2023)
Other news from the department business & finance
Eating as an art of living instead of XL portions
Experts advise enjoyment in company, reflection and slow eating - enormous need for research on portion sizes
Enzymit Partners with Aleph Farms to Reduce Production Costs and Shorten Time-to-Market for Cultivated Meat
Enzymit Employs AI and Deep Learning to Develop Novel Insulin Substituents as Processing Aids for Cost-Efficient Cultivated Meat Production
Coca-Cola Europacific Partners makes further investment in recycling technology to accelerate the elimination of virgin plastic in its bottles
GEA invests EUR 50 million in German centrifuge production sites
Focus on sustainable production, including digitalized and automated processes
Barry Callebaut sharpens sustainability targets
Fresh ambition for the Group’s Forever Chocolate plan
Heura Launches Good Rebel Tech, a Multidisciplinary Scientific Approach to Redefine Plant-Based Food Manufacturing
Heura’s New Technological Platform Utilises Nutrient Dense Materials from Industry By-Product and Non-Utilized Plant Sources
Mondelēz International’s SnackFutures Announces Third Cohort of Brands to Participate in CoLab Start-Up Program
This year’s focus is on start-ups that are doing disruptive things to make snacks delicious
Most read news
Extracting the best flavor from coffee
Understanding the origin of uneven extraction in brewing espresso can improve the beverage and enable substantial financial savings by using coffee more efficiently and sustainably
What makes “junk food” junk?
Study examines how three decades of U.S. policies define junk food for taxation and other regulations
Paper-based packaging has a good eco-image
Study by the University of Bonn examines how the type of packaging influences purchase intention
Just Spices Expands to U.S. Market
Kraft Heinz brings Europe’s beloved direct-to-consumer spice brand to America to accelerate its Taste Elevation portfolio
More news from our other portals
Newly developed hydrogel nanocomposite for the mass production of hydrogen
“This study makes great progress in the field of photocatalysis and showcases the potential of green hydrogen production at sea with world-class performance"
Artificial intelligence identifies anti-aging drug candidates targeting ‘zombie’ cells
New platform has potential to fuel advances in senolytic anti-aging compounds and longevity research
X-ray imaging captures fleeting defects in sodium-ion batteries
A Cornell-led collaboration succeeded in identifying an elusive mechanism that can trigger degradation in sodium-ion batteries
Artificial photosynthesis for environmentally friendly food production
Researchers produce important amino acid from greenhouse gas CO₂
Microbe of the Year 2023: Bacillus subtilis – for health and technology
Already, Bacillus subtilis is indispensable in many industries, and many more innovations are expected
New concept for lithium-air batteries
Research project in Germany aims to improve the stability of this novel battery type
Researchers develop new method to synthesise cannabis plant compound
cis-tetrahydrocannabinoids can now be produced synthetically, enabling pharmaceutical applications
Launching Revvity: A Scientific Solutions Company Powering Innovation from Discovery to Cure
The Company was previously affiliated with PerkinElmer, Inc.
The World’s Smallest Impedance Spectroscopy System in the Form of a Pill Finds Weak Spots in Machines and People
Small as a candy: Waterproof IoT sensor reliably measures the properties of liquids even in hard-to-reach places
New catalyst transforms carbon dioxide into sustainable byproduct
Researchers create acetic acid out of carbon monoxide derived from captured carbon
Ultra-long protein fibrils give clues on dementia risk
"AFM technology has the potential to complement conventional biomarker tests and improve the early detection of Alzheimer's"
New Start-up develops aquafarms for macroalgae
AWI and Carbonwave spin-off: Large algae simultaneously bind CO₂ and create raw materials for the chemical industry
Pall and Cytiva join forces
Cytiva and Pall Life Sciences complete integration to create a global innovation and solutions leader in biotechnology
New theory explains superconductivity in spun graphene trilayers
The study, carried out by CSIC scientists, lays the foundations for understanding the mechanisms of certain unconventional superconducting materials
3D-printed pills with desired drug release – a step upwards in medication
Funny looking pills are not a design gimmick, they can release medication in a desired time regime!
Scientists “revive” Stone Age molecules
In a highly transdisciplinary study, scientists are rebuilding microbial natural products up to 100,000 years old
Ammonia: efficient hydrogen carrier and green steel enabler
Max Planck materials scientists use ammonia for sustainable iron- and steelmaking
How to repel mosquitoes with the right soap scent
Virginia Tech researchers conduct proof-of-concept study on mosquito’s scent preferences
AI supports analysis of metallic materials
"With our specially developed algorithm, we are three times faster"
An electric vehicle battery for all seasons
New electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries performs well in frigid regions and seasons
Hidden RNA repair mechanism discovered in humans
Function of a previously uncharacterized human protein elucidated
Waters reports first quarter 2023 financial results
Growth in broader Asia and Europe offset by weakness in China and the U.S.
Scientists streamline a widely used chemical reaction, creating new manufacturing opportunities
This research should have a far-reaching impact: it allows scientists to forge valuable carbon-carbon bonds used in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, and beyond
Occludin protein plays key role in spread of coronavirus throughout body’s cells
Finding gives insight into how the virus spreads throughout the human body, may help development of antiviral drugs